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(17031791) Anglican clergyman, evangelist, and cofounder of Methodism. The 15th child of a former Nonconformist minister, he graduated from Oxford University and became a priest in the Church of England in 1728. From 1729 he participated in a religious study group in Oxford organized by his brother Charles (17071788), its members being dubbed the Methodists for their emphasis on methodical study and devotion. Its numbers grew, and it began to undertake social and charitable activities. After a largely unsuccessful mission to the North American colony of Georgia (173537), they returned to London, where they came under the influence of the Moravian Church. In 1738, inspired by the theology of Martin Luther, both men had a religious experience that convinced them that salvation was possible through faith alone. Zealous evangelists, they had great success in preaching to the masses in the succeeding decades. In 1784 John began ordaining ministers himself when the bishop of London refused to do so (despite Charles's disapproval) and declared his independence from the Church of England. The two wrote several thousand hymns, including Hark, the Herald Angels Sing and Christ the Lord Is Ris'n Today.
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